Community

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In biological terminology, a community is a group of interacting organisms sharing an environment, but in human communities, intent, belief, resources, preferences, needs, risks, and a number of other conditions may be present and common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness. Traditionally a "community" has been defined as a group of people living in a common location or with a common purpose regardless of their location. The word is often used to refer to a group that is organised around common values and social cohesion within a shared geographical location, generally in social units larger than a household.



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Etymology

Communis comes from a combination of the Latin prefix com- (which means "together") and the word munis probably originally derived from the Etruscan word munis- (meaning "to have the charge of"). Etruscan Etymological Glossary

a. OF. com(m)uneté, com(m)unité:{em}L. comm{umac}nit{amac}t-em, f. comm{umac}n-is COMMON. ME. had two forms, the trisyllabic comunete, comounté (see COMMONTY), and the 4-syllabic co(m)munité, which remained in closer formal connexion with the original Latin type. The L. word was merely a noun of quality from comm{umac}nis, meaning ‘fellowship, community of relations or feelings’; but in med.L. it was, like universitas, used concretely in the sense of ‘a body of fellows or fellow-townsmen’, ‘universitas incolarum urbis vel oppidi,’ and this was its earlier use in English: see II.]

  • I. As a quality or state.
1. a. The quality of appertaining to or being held by all in common; joint or common ownership, tenure, liability, etc.; as in community of goods.
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b. Right of common. Obs.
2. Common character; quality in common; commonness, agreement, identity. {dag}nothing of community: nothing in common. community of interest: identity of interest, interests in common (spec. in Finance).
3. Social intercourse; fellowship, communion.
4. Life in association with others; society, the social state.
5. a. Commonness, ordinary occurrence. Obs.
b. Common character, vulgarity. Obs.
  • II. A body of individuals.
6. The body of those having common or equal rights or rank, as distinguished from the privileged classes; the body of commons; the commonalty.
Community earliest date.jpg
7. A body of people organized into a political, municipal, or social unity: a. A state or commonwealth.
b. A body of men living in the same locality.
c. Often applied to those members of a civil community, who have certain circumstances of nativity, religion, or pursuit, common to them, but not shared by those among whom they live; as the British or Chinese community in a foreign city, the mercantile community everywhere, the Roman Catholic community in a Protestant city, etc., the Jewish community in London, familiarly known to its members as ‘The Community’.
d. the community: the people of a country (or district) as a whole; the general body to which all alike belong, the public.
e. A body of nations acknowledging unity of purpose or common interests. (Esp. in the titles of international organizations, as European Defence Community, European Economic Community.)
8. spec. A body of persons living together, and practising, more or less, community of goods. a. A religious society, a monastic body.
b. A socialistic or communistic society, such as those founded by Owen.
9. transf. and fig. a. of gregarious animals. spec. in Ecology. A group of plants or animals growing or living together in natural conditions or inhabiting a specified area.
b. of things: A cluster, a combination. Obs.
10. A common prostitute. Obs.
11. attrib., as community care, feeling, life, living, spirit, theatre; community centre (orig. U.S.), a building or an organization providing social, recreational, and educational facilities for a neighbourhood; community chest U.S., a fund made up of individual donations to meet the needs for charity and social welfare work in a community; community college (orig. U.S.) (see quot. 1959); community home, an institution for young offenders and children taken into the care of a local authority; cf. approved school s.v. APPROVED ppl. a. 5; community service order, a court order that a convicted offender perform a stipulated number of hours of unpaid work for the community or an individual; community singing, organized singing in chorus by large groups or gatherings of people; so community song, etc.

Perspectives from various disciplines

Sociology

Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies distinguished between two types of human association: Gemeinschaft (usually translated as "community") and Gesellschaft ("society" or "association"). In his 1887 work, Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft|Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, Tönnies argued that Gemeinschaft is perceived to be a tighter and more cohesive social entity, due to the presence of a "unity of will."Tönnies, F. 1887. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, p. 22. He added that family and kinship were the perfect expressions of Gemeinschaft, but that other shared characteristics, such as place or belief, could also result in Gemeinschaft. Gesellschaft, on the other hand, is a group in which the individuals who make up that group are motivated to take part in the group according to their perceived self-interest. He also proposed that in the real world, no group was either pure Gemeinschaft or pure Gesellschaft, but, rather, a mixture of the two.

Individual and community

During their growth and maturation, people encounter a variety of individuals and experiences. Infants first interact with their immediate family, then with extended family. As they mature, children interact with the local community, first in school and later through work. They thus develop individual and group identity through associations that connect them to life-long community experiences. Chapter 5. "Building Identity: Socialization"

As people grow, they learn about and form perceptions of social structures. During this progression, they form values, a world view, and attitudes toward the larger society. Gaining an understanding of group dynamics and how to "fit in" is part of socialization. Individuals develop interpersonal relationships and begin to make choices about whom to associate with and under what circumstances.

During adolescence and adulthood, the individual tends to develop a more sophisticated identity, often taking on a role as a leader or follower in groups. If an individual develops the feeling that they belong to a group, and they must help the group they are part of, then they develop a sense of community.

Social capital

If community exists, both freedom and security exist as well. The community then takes on a life of its own, as people become free enough to share and secure enough to get along. The sense of connectedness and formation of social networks comprise what has become known as social capital.

Social capital is defined as "the collective value of all social networks and the inclinations that arise from these networks to do things for each other (norms of reciprocity)."SAGUARO SEMINAR - Civic Engagement in America Social capital in action can be seen in groups of varying formality, including neighbours keeping an eye on each others' homes. However, as Putnam notes in Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (2000), social capital has been falling in the United States. Putnam found that over the past 25 years, attendance at club meetings has fallen 58 percent, family dinners are down 33 percent, and having friends visit has fallen 45 percent.Bowling Alone web site

The same patterns are also evident in several other western countries. Western cultures are thus said to be losing the spirit of community that once were found in institutions including churches and community centers. Sociologist Ray Oldenburg states in The Great Good Place that people need three places: 1) the home, 2) the office, and, 3) the community hangout or gathering place. Ray Oldenburg. With this philosophy in mind, many grassroots efforts are being started to create this "Third Place" in communities. They are taking form in independent bookstores, coffeehouses, local pubs, and through many innovative means to create the social capital needed to foster the sense and spirit of community. Social Capital in Tampa Bay: An Update Report.

Psychology

Sense of community

In a seminal 1986 study, McMillan and Chavis identify four elements of "sense of community": 1) membership, 2) influence, 3) integration and fulfillment of needs, and 4) shared emotional connection. They give the following example of the interplay between these factors:

Someone puts an announcement on the dormitory bulletin board about the formation of an intramural dormitory basketball team. People attend the organizational meeting as strangers out of their individual needs (integration and fulfillment of needs). The team is bound by place of residence (membership boundaries are set) and spends time together in practice (the contact hypothesis). They play a game and win (successful shared valent event). While playing, members exert energy on behalf of the team (personal investment in the group). As the team continues to win, team members become recognized and congratulated (gaining honor and status for being members). Someone suggests that they all buy matching shirts and shoes (common symbols) and they do so (influence). (McMillan, D.W., & Chavis, D.M. 1986. "Sense of community: A definition and theory," p. 16.)

A Sense of Community Index (SCI) has been developed by Chavis and colleagues and revised and adapted by others. Although originally designed to assess sense of community in neighborhoods, the index has been adapted for use in schools, the workplace, and a variety of types of communities. (Perkins, D.D., Florin, P., Rich, R.C., Wandersman, A. & Chavis, D.M. 1990). Participation and the social and physical environment of residential blocks: Crime and community context. (American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 83-115. Chipuer, H. M., & Pretty, G. M. H. 1999). (A review of the Sense of Community Index: Current uses, factor structure, reliability, and further development. Journal of Community Psychology, 27(6), 643-658. Long, D.A., & Perkins, D.D. 2003). (Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Sense of Community Index and Development of a Brief SCI. Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 279-296).

Anthropology

Community and its features are central to anthropological research. Some of the ways community is addressed in anthropology include the following:

Cultural or social anthropology

Cultural (or social anthropology has traditionally looked at community through the lens of ethnographic fieldwork and ethnography continues to be an important methodology for study of modern communities. Other anthropological approaches that deal with various aspects of community include cross-cultural studies and the anthropology of religion. Cultures in modern society are also studied in the fields of urban anthropology, ethnic studies, ecological anthropology, and psychological anthropology. Since the 1990s, internet communities have increasingly been the subject of research in the emerging field of cyber anthropology.

Archaeology

Archaeological studies of social communities. The term “community” is used in two ways in archaeology, paralleling usage in other areas. The first is an informal definition of community as a place where people used to live. In this sense it is synonymous with the concept of an ancient settlement, whether a hamlet, village, town, or city. The second meaning is similar to the usage of the term in other social sciences: a community is a group of people living near one another who interact socially. Social interaction on a small scale can be difficult to identify with archaeological data. Most reconstructions of social communities by archaeologists rely on the principle that social interaction is conditioned by physical distance. Therefore a small village settlement likely constituted a social community, and spatial subdivisions of cities and other large settlements may have formed communities. Archaeologists typically use similarities in material culture—from house types to styles of pottery—to reconstruct communities in the past. This is based on the assumption that people or households will share more similarities in the types and styles of their material goods with other members of a social community than they will with outsiders. (The Archaeology of Communities. Routledge, New York. Hegmon, Michelle 2002) Concepts of Community in Archaeological Research. In Seeking the Center: Archaeology and Ancient Communities in the Mesa Verde Region, edited by Mark D. Varien and Richard H. Wilshusen, pp. 263-279. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.)

Social philosophy

Communitarianism

Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies (or ideologies) began in the late 20th century, opposing classical liberalism and capitalism while advocating phenomena such as civil society. Not necessarily hostile to social liberalism, communitarianism rather has a different emphasis, shifting the focus of interest toward communities and societies and away from the individual. The question of priority, whether for the individual or community, must be determined in dealing with pressing ethical questions about a variety of social issues, such as health care, abortion, multiculturalism, and hate speech.

Business and communications

Organizational communication

Effective communication practices in group and organizational settings are important to the formation and maintenance of communities. How ideas and values are communicated within communities are important to the induction of new members, the formulation of agendas, the selection of leaders and many other aspects. Organizational communication is the study of how people communicate within an organizational context and the influences and interactions within organizational structures. Group members depend on the flow of communication to establish their own identity within these structures and learn to function in the group setting. Although organizational communication, as a field of study, is usually geared toward companies and business groups, these may also be seen as communities. The principles of organizational communication can also be applied to other types of communities.

Ecology

In ecology, a community is an assemblage of populations of different species, interacting with one another. Community ecology is the branch of ecology that studies interactions between and among species. It considers how such interactions, along with interactions between species and the abiotic environment, affect community structure and species richness, diversity and patterns of abundance. Species interact in three ways: competition, predation and mutualism. Competition typically results in a double negative—that is both species lose in the interaction. Predation is a win/lose situation with one species winning. Mutualism, on the other hand, involves both species cooperating in some way, with both winning.

Interdisciplinary perspectives

Socialization

The process of learning to adopt the behavior patterns of the community is called socialization. The most fertile time of socialization is usually the early stages of life, during which individuals develop the skills and knowledge and learn the roles necessary to function within their culture and social environment. For some psychologists, especially those in the psychodynamic tradition, the most important period of socialization is between the ages of one and ten. But socialization also includes adults moving into a significantly different environment, where they must learn a new set of behaviors.

Socialization is influenced primarily by the family, through which children first learn community norms. Other important influences include school, peer groups, mass media, the workplace, and government. The degree to which the norms of a particular society or community are adopted determines one's willingness to engage with others. The norms of tolerance, reciprocity, and trust are important "habits of the heart," as de Tocqueville put it, in an individual's involvement in community.

Community development

Community development, often linked with Community Work or Community Planning, is often formally conducted by non-government organisations (NGOs), universities or government agencies to improve the social well-being of local, regional and, sometimes, national communities. Less formal efforts, called community building or community organizing, seek to empower individuals and groups of people by providing them with the skills they need to effect change in their own communities. These skills often assist in building political power through the formation of large social groups working for a common agenda. Community development practitioners must understand both how to work with individuals and how to affect communities' positions within the context of larger social institutions.

Formal programs conducted by universities are often used to build a knowledge base to drive curricula in sociology and community studies. The General Social Survey from the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago and the Saguaro Seminar at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University are examples of national community development in the United States. In The United Kingdom, Oxford University has led in providing extensive research in the field through its Community Development Journal, Community Development Journal, used worldwide by sociologists and community development practitioners.

At the intersection between community development and community building are a number of programs and organizations with community development tools. One example of this is the program of the Asset Based Community Development Institute of Northwestern University. The institute makes available downloadable tools Discovering Community Power: A Guide to Mobilizing Local Assets and Your Organization's Capacity to assess community assets and make connections between non-profit groups and other organizations that can help in community building. The Institute focuses on helping communities develop by "mobilizing neighborhood assets"— building from the inside out rather than the outside in. Welcome to ABCD.

Community building and organizing

In The Different Drum: Community-Making and Peace, Scott Peck argues that the almost accidental sense of community that exists at times of crisis can be consciously built. Peck believes that conscious community building is a process of deliberate design based on the knowledge and application of certain rules. M. Scott Peck, (1987). The Different Drum: Community-Making and Peace, pp. 83-85.</ref> He states that this process goes through four stages:

  1. Pseudo-community: Where participants are "nice with each other", playing-safe, and presenting what they feel is the most favourable sides of their personalities.
  2. Chaos: When people move beyond the inauthenticity of pseudo-community and feel safe enough to present their "shadow" selves. This stage places great demands upon the facilitator for greater leadership and organization, but Peck believes that "organizations are not communities", and this pressure should be resisted.
  3. Emptiness: This stage moves beyond the attempts to fix, heal and convert of the chaos stage, when all people become capable of acknowledging their own woundedness and brokenness, common to us all as human beings. Out of this emptiness comes
  4. True community: the process of deep respect and true listening for the needs of the other people in this community. This stage Peck believes can only be described as "glory" and reflects a deep yearning in every human soul for compassionate understanding from one's fellows.

More recently Peck remarked that building a sense of community is easy but maintaining this sense of community is difficult in the modern world. "The Joy of Community". Community building can use a wide variety of practices, ranging from simple events such as potlucks and small book clubs to larger–scale efforts such as mass festivals and construction projects that involve local participants rather than outside contractors.

Community building that is geared toward citizen action is usually termed "community organizing." Power to the People: Thirty-five Years of Community Organizing. In these cases, organized community groups seek accountability from elected officials and increased direct representation within decision-making bodies. Where good-faith negotiations fail, these constituency-led organizations seek to pressure the decision-makers through a variety of means, including picketing, boycotting, sit-ins, petitioning, and electoral politics. The ARISE Detroit! coalition and the Toronto Public Space Committee are examples of activist networks committed to shielding local communities from government and corporate domination and inordinate influence.

Community organizing is sometimes focused on more than just resolving specific issues. Organizing often means building a widely accessible power structure, often with the end goal of distributing power equally throughout the community. Community organizers generally seek to build groups that are open and democratic in governance. Such groups facilitate and encourage consensus decision-making with a focus on the general health of the community rather than a specific interest group. The three basic types of community organizing are grassroots organizing, coalition building, and "institution-based community organizing," (also called "broad-based community organizing," an example of which is faith-based community organizing, or "congregation-based community organizing").

Community currencies

Some communities have developed their own "Local Exchange Trading Systems" (LETS) Local Exchange Trading Systems were first developed by Michael Linton, in Courtenay, BC, see "LETSystems - new money" and local currencies, such as the Ithaca Hours system, to encourage economic growth and an enhanced sense of community. Community Currencies have recently proven valuable in meeting the needs of people living in various South American nations, particularly Argentina, that recently suffered as a result of the collapse of the Argentinian national currency.Social Trade Organisation Conversely, at least one community, The Los Angeles Skills Pool, Los Angeles Skills Pool is built around the sharing of services without the use of any currency.

Community service

Community service is usually performed in connection with a nonprofit organization, but it may also be undertaken under the auspices of government, one or more businesses, or by individuals. It is typically unpaid and voluntary. However, it can be part of alternative sentencing approaches in the administration of justice and it can be required by educational institutions.

Types of community

A number of ways to categorize types of community have been proposed; one such breakdown is:

  1. Geographic communities: range from the local neighbourhood, suburb, village, town or city, region, nation or even the planet as a whole. These refer to communities of location.
  2. Communities of culture: range from the local clique, sub-culture, ethnic group, religious, multicultural or political cultures of today. They may be included as communities of need or identity, such as disability, or aged people.
  3. Community organizations: range from informal family or kinship networks, to more formal incorporated associations, political structures, economic enterprises, or professional associations at a small, national or international scale.

Communities are nested; one community can contain another—for example a geographic community may contain a number of ethnic communities.

Location

Possibly the most common usage of the word "community" indicates a large group living in close proximity. Examples of local community include:

  • A municipality is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a town or village. Although large cities are also municipalities, they are often thought of as a collection of communities, due to their diversity.
  • A neighborhood is a geographically localized community, often within a larger city or suburb.
  • A 'planned community' is one that was designed from scratch and grew up more or less following the plan. Several of the world's capital cities are planned cities, notably Washington, D.C., in the United States, Canberra in Australia, and Brasília in Brazil. It was also common during the European colonization of the Americas to build according to a plan either on fresh ground or on the ruins of earlier Amerindian cities.

Identity

In some contexts, "community" indicates a group of people with a common identity other than location. Members often interact regularly. Common examples in everyday usage include:

  • A "professional community" is a group of people with the same or related occupations. Some of those members may join a professional society, making a more defined and formalized group. These are also sometimes known as communities of practice.
  • A virtual community is a group of people primarily or initially communicating or interacting with each other by means of information technologies, typically over the Internet, rather than in person. These may be either communities of interest, Virtual Community of Practice or communion. Research interest is evolving in the motivations for contributing to online communities.

Overlaps

Some communities share both location and other attributes. Members choose to live near each other because of one or more common interests.

  • A retirement community is designated and at least usually designed for retirees and seniors—often restricted to those over a certain age, such as 55. It differs from a retirement home, which is a single building or small complex, by having a number of autonomous households.
  • An intentional community is a deliberate residential community with a much higher degree of social interaction than other communities. The members of an intentional community typically hold a common social, political or spiritual vision and share responsibilities and resources. Intentional communities include Amish villages, ashrams, cohousing, communes, ecovillages, housing cooperatives, kibbutzim, and land trusts.

Special nature of human community

Definitions of community as "organisms inhabiting a common environment and interacting with one another". Nova: Science in the News. while scientifically accurate, do not convey the richness, diversity and complexity of human communities. Their classification, likewise is almost never precise. Untidy as it may be, community is vital for humans. Scott Peck expresses this in the following way: "There can be no vulnerability without risk; there can be no community without vulnerability; there can be no peace, and ultimately no life, without community."

Quote

We know that any child can best relate himself to reality by first mastering the relationships of the child-parent situation and then by enlarging this concept to embrace the family as a whole. Subsequently the growing mind of the child will be able to adjust to the concept of family relations, to relationships of the community, the race, and the world, and then to those of the universe, the superuniverse, even the universe of universes.[1]

See also

Notes

  1. Etruscan Etymological Glossary [1]
  2. Tönnies, F. 1887. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, p. 22.
  3. Newman, D. 2005. Chapter 5. "Building Identity: Socialization" pp. 134-140.
  4. Putnam, D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of the American Community, p. 19.
  5. SAGUARO SEMINAR - Civic Engagement in America
  6. Bowling Alone web site
  7. Project for Public Spaces. 2006. Ray Oldenburg.
  8. University of Florida. 2006. Social Capital in Tampa Bay: An Update Report.
  9. McMillan, D.W., & Chavis, D.M. 1986. "Sense of community: A definition and theory," p. 16.
  10. Perkins, D.D., Florin, P., Rich, R.C., Wandersman, A. & Chavis, D.M. (1990). Participation and the social and physical environment of residential blocks: Crime and community context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 83-115. Chipuer, H. M., & Pretty, G. M. H. (1999). A review of the Sense of Community Index: Current uses, factor structure, reliability, and further development. Journal of Community Psychology, 27(6), 643-658. Long, D.A., & Perkins, D.D. (2003). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Sense of Community Index and Development of a Brief SCI. Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 279-296.
  11. Canuto, Marcello A. and Jason Yaeger (editors) (2000) The Archaeology of Communities. Routledge, New York. Hegmon, Michelle (2002) Concepts of Community in Archaeological Research. In Seeking the Center: Archaeology and Ancient Communities in the Mesa Verde Region, edited by Mark D. Varien and Richard H. Wilshusen, pp. 263-279. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
  12. Newman, D. 2005, p. 141.
  13. Smith, M. 2001. Community.
  14. Kelly, Anthony, "With Head, Heart and Hand: Dimensions of Community Building" (Boolarong Press) [ISBN 978086439076]
  15. Community Development Journal, Oxford University Press
  16. ABCD Institute, in cooperation with the W.K. Kellogg Foundation. 2006. Discovering Community Power: A Guide to Mobilizing Local Assets and Your Organization's Capacity.
  17. ABCD Institute. 2006. Welcome to ABCD.
  18. M. Scott Peck, (1987). The Different Drum: Community-Making and Peace, pp. 83-85.
  19. Peck (1987), pp. 86-106.
  20. M. Scott Peck (1991). "The Joy of Community". An interview with M. Scott Peck by Alan Atkisson. In Context #29, p. 26.
  21. Wells, David (1994) Power to the People: Thirty-five Years of Community Organizing. From The Workbook, Summer 1994, pp. 52-55. Retrieved on: June 22, 2008.
  22. Jacoby Brown, Michael, (2006), "Building Powerful Community Organizations: A Personal Guide To Creating Groups That Can Solve Problems and Change the World" (Long Haul Press)
  23. Local Exchange Trading Systems were first developed by Michael Linton, in Courtenay, BC, see "LETSystems - new money". Retrieved: 2006-08-01.
  24. The Ithaca Hours system, developed by Paul Glover is outlined in "Creating Community Economics with Local Currency". Retrieved: 2006-08-01.
  25. Social Trade Organisation
  26. Los Angeles Skills Pool website
  27. Tropman John E., Erlich, John L. and Rothman, Jack (2006), "Tactics and Techniques of Community Intervention" (Wadsworth Publishing)
  28. Australian Academy of Science. Nova: Science in the News. Retrieved: 2006-07-21.
  29. Peck (1987), p. 233.


References

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— 2000. What is globalization? Cambridge: Polity Press.
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  • McMillan, D.W., & Chavis, D.M. 1986. "Sense of community: A definition and theory." American Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6-23.
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  • Peck, M.S. 1987. The Different Drum: Community-Making and Peace. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84858-9
  • Perkins, D.D., Florin, P., Rich, R.C., Wandersman, A. & Chavis, D.M. (1990). Participation and the social and physical environment of residential blocks: Crime and community context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 83-115.
  • Putnam, R. D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster
  • Sarason, S.B. 1974. The psychological sense of community: Prospects for a community psychology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
— 1986. "Commentary: The emergence of a conceptual center." Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 405-407.
  • Smith, M. K. 2001. Community. Encyclopedia of informal education. Last updated: January 28, 2005. Retrieved: 2006-07-15.
  • Tönnies, F. 1887. Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, Leipzig: Fues's Verlag, 2nd ed. 1912, 8th edition, Leipzig: Buske, 1935; translated in 1957 as Community and Society. ISBN 0-88738-750-0

External links