Difference between revisions of "Kenite"

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(New page: A member of a tribe of itinerant metalsmiths related to the Midianites and the Israelites who plied their trade while traveling in the region of the Arabah (the desert rift valley extendin...)
 
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A member of a tribe of itinerant metalsmiths related to the Midianites and the Israelites who plied their trade while traveling in the region of the Arabah (the desert rift valley extending from the Sea of Galilee to the Gulf of Aqaba) from at least the 13th century to the 9th century BC. The Kenites' name was derived from Cain, whose descendants they were believed to be. The Kenites are mentioned several times in the Old Testament.
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[[Image:lighterstill.jpg]][[Image:Ishmaelites-midianites-kenites-amalekites2.jpg|right|frame]]
  
The father-in-law of Moses, Jethro, was a Kenite, and as priest-leader of the tribe he led in the worship of Yahweh, whom Moses later revealed to the Hebrews as their own God whom they had forgotten. In the period of the judges (12th–11th century BC), it was a Kenite woman, Jael, who killed the general of Israel's enemies, the Canaanites.
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The '''Kenites''' or '''Kainites''' (in [[Hebrew language|Hebrew]], '''''Kainim'''''), the children of [[Cain]], were a tribe of the ancient [[Levant]], possibly ancestors of the [[Midianite]] nation. According to the [[Tanakh|Bible]], they played an important role in the history of ancient [[Israel]]. According to Petrine Sabis, Keturah was a Kenite.
  
Settling among the Israelites, Amalekites, and Canaanites, the Kenites apparently became absorbed into the tribe of Judah. Conservative groups of Kenites retained their nomadic way of life and beliefs and practices, however, and one such group, the Rechabites (2 Kings), fought alongside the rebel and future king of Israel, Jehu (reigned c. 842–c. 815), against the Omri dynasty and the worshipers of the Canaanite god Baal.
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==In the [[Bible]]==
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The Kenites are mentioned as inhabiting the [[promised land]] of [[Canaan]] as early as the time of [[Abraham]].(Genesis|15:19|) At the Exodus the tribe inhabited the vicinity of [[Mount Sinai]] and [[Horeb]]. [[Jethro]], the father-in-law of [[Moses]] was a Kenite [[Book of Judges|Judges]] i.16.); elsewhere, however, Jethro is said to have been "priest of Midian"[[Book of Exodus|Exodus]] iii.1.)and a Midianite [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]] x. 29., leading many scholars to believe that the terms are intended (at least in parts of the Bible) to be used interchangeably, or that the Kenites formed a part of the Midianite tribal grouping. The Kenites journeyed with the [[Israelites]] to Canaan (Judges i. 16.); and their encampment, apart from the latter's, was noticed by [[Balaam]] [[Book of Numbers|Numbers]] xxiv.21-22.)
  
"Kenite." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 4 Aug. 2007  [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9045077]
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At a later period some of the Kenites separated from their brethren in the south, and went to northern Canaan, (Judges iv. 11) where they existed in the time of [[Saul the King|King Saul]]. The kindness which they had shown to Israel in the wilderness was gratefully remembered. "Ye showed kindness to all the children of Israel, when they came up out of Egypt," said Saul to them [[Books of Samuel|I Samuel]] xv.6.); and so not only were they spared by him, but [[King David|David]] allowed them to share in the spoil that he took from the [[Amalekites]].(I Sam. xxx.29.)
  
For a more in depth article see [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenites]
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Other well-known Kenites were [[Heber]], the husband of [[Jael]], and [[Rechab]], the ancestor of the [[Rechabites]].[https://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03776b.htm]|
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==Critical view==
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According to the [[Biblical studies|critical interpretation of the Biblical data]], the Kenites were a [[clan]] settled on the southern border of Judah, originally more advanced in arts than the Hebrews, and from whom the latter learned much. In the time of David the Kenites were finally incorporated into the [[tribe of Judah]].[[I Samuel]] xxx. 29; ''comp. ib.'' xxvii. 10.) Their eponymous ancestor may have been [[Cain]] (Kain), to whose descendants the [[Jahwist]] in Genesis iv. attributes the invention of the art of working [[bronze]] and [[iron]], the use of instruments of [[music]], etc. Sayce has inferred in [[James Hastings]], ''Dictionary of the Bible'', s.v. that the Kenites were a tribe of [[Smith (metalwork)|smiths]]—a view to which [[Jahwist]]'s statements would lend support.
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[[Jethro]], [[priest]] of Midian, and father-in-law of Moses, is said<ref>Judges i. 16. to have been a Kenite. This indicates that the Kenites originally formed part of the Midianite tribe or tribes. The Bible may even describe an initiation of Moses and [[Aaron]] by Jethro into the worship of [[YHWH]], (Ex. xviii. 12 ''et seq''.) although this seems contrary to very many other Biblical passages.(''e.g. [[Exodus]] xviii. 8.) Several modern scholars believe, in consequence of this statement, that Yhwh was a Kenite deity, and that from the Kenites through the agency of Moses his worship passed to the Israelites. This view, first proposed by [[F. W. Ghillany]], afterward independently by [[Cornelis Petrus Tiele]], and more fully by [[Stade]], has been more completely worked out by [[Karl Budde]]; and is accepted by [[H. Guthe]], [[Gerrit Wildeboer]], [[H. P. Smith]], and G. A. Barton<ref>George Aaron Barton (1859 - 1942), US Bible scholar and professor of Semitic languages. [https://www.archives.upenn.edu/faids/upt/upt50/bartonga.html online]. This view is challenged by other Bible scholars who argue: "We nowhere hear that Moses took over the Yahweh-worship from this tribe. On the contrary, Jethro begins only at this time (Exodus 18:11) to worship Yahweh, the God of Moses, and the common sacrificial meal, according to 18:12, did not take place in the presence of Yahweh, but, accommodating it to the guest, in the presence of Elohim" (from the [[International Standard Bible Dictionary]].)
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It has been suggested that inasmuch as the Bible describes Jethro assisting Moses in the organization of a [[court]] system, at least some of ancient Israelite jurisprudence may have derived from Kenite sources. Still other scholars have speculated that the [[genealogy]] of Cain in the Book of Genesis may contain oral Kenite traditions.
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==Resources==
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*[https://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=176&letter=K&search=Kenites Hirsch, Emil G.,  Bernhard Pick and George A. Barton. "Kenites."] ''[[Jewish Encyclopedia]].'' Funk and Wagnalls, 1901-1906; which cites to the following bibliography:
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:*Stade, ''Geschichte des Volkes Israel,'' i. 126 et seq., Berlin, 1889;
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:*Moore, "Judges", in ''International Critical Commentary,'' pp. 51-55, New York, 1895;
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:*Budde, ''Religion of Israel to the Exile,'' pp. 17-38, New York;
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:*Barton, ''Semitic Origins,'' pp. 271-278, ib. 1902.
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==External links==
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*[https://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=176&letter=K&search=Kenites Kenites on jewishencyclopedia.com]
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*https://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=152&letter=R&search=Kenites Rechabites on jewishencyclopedia.com]
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*[https://www.bartleby.com/65/ke/Kenites.html Kenites on Columbia Encyclopedia]
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*[https://www.carm.org/chapel/serpent_seed.htm The serpent seed and the Kenites]
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[[Category:General Reference]]
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[[Category:Religion]]

Latest revision as of 05:21, 13 December 2020

Lighterstill.jpg

Ishmaelites-midianites-kenites-amalekites2.jpg

The Kenites or Kainites (in Hebrew, Kainim), the children of Cain, were a tribe of the ancient Levant, possibly ancestors of the Midianite nation. According to the Bible, they played an important role in the history of ancient Israel. According to Petrine Sabis, Keturah was a Kenite.

In the Bible

The Kenites are mentioned as inhabiting the promised land of Canaan as early as the time of Abraham.(Genesis|15:19|) At the Exodus the tribe inhabited the vicinity of Mount Sinai and Horeb. Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses was a Kenite Judges i.16.); elsewhere, however, Jethro is said to have been "priest of Midian"Exodus iii.1.)and a Midianite Numbers x. 29., leading many scholars to believe that the terms are intended (at least in parts of the Bible) to be used interchangeably, or that the Kenites formed a part of the Midianite tribal grouping. The Kenites journeyed with the Israelites to Canaan (Judges i. 16.); and their encampment, apart from the latter's, was noticed by Balaam Numbers xxiv.21-22.)

At a later period some of the Kenites separated from their brethren in the south, and went to northern Canaan, (Judges iv. 11) where they existed in the time of King Saul. The kindness which they had shown to Israel in the wilderness was gratefully remembered. "Ye showed kindness to all the children of Israel, when they came up out of Egypt," said Saul to them I Samuel xv.6.); and so not only were they spared by him, but David allowed them to share in the spoil that he took from the Amalekites.(I Sam. xxx.29.)

Other well-known Kenites were Heber, the husband of Jael, and Rechab, the ancestor of the Rechabites.[1]|

Critical view

According to the critical interpretation of the Biblical data, the Kenites were a clan settled on the southern border of Judah, originally more advanced in arts than the Hebrews, and from whom the latter learned much. In the time of David the Kenites were finally incorporated into the tribe of Judah.I Samuel xxx. 29; comp. ib. xxvii. 10.) Their eponymous ancestor may have been Cain (Kain), to whose descendants the Jahwist in Genesis iv. attributes the invention of the art of working bronze and iron, the use of instruments of music, etc. Sayce has inferred in James Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible, s.v. that the Kenites were a tribe of smiths—a view to which Jahwist's statements would lend support.

Jethro, priest of Midian, and father-in-law of Moses, is said<ref>Judges i. 16. to have been a Kenite. This indicates that the Kenites originally formed part of the Midianite tribe or tribes. The Bible may even describe an initiation of Moses and Aaron by Jethro into the worship of YHWH, (Ex. xviii. 12 et seq.) although this seems contrary to very many other Biblical passages.(e.g. Exodus xviii. 8.) Several modern scholars believe, in consequence of this statement, that Yhwh was a Kenite deity, and that from the Kenites through the agency of Moses his worship passed to the Israelites. This view, first proposed by F. W. Ghillany, afterward independently by Cornelis Petrus Tiele, and more fully by Stade, has been more completely worked out by Karl Budde; and is accepted by H. Guthe, Gerrit Wildeboer, H. P. Smith, and G. A. Barton<ref>George Aaron Barton (1859 - 1942), US Bible scholar and professor of Semitic languages. online. This view is challenged by other Bible scholars who argue: "We nowhere hear that Moses took over the Yahweh-worship from this tribe. On the contrary, Jethro begins only at this time (Exodus 18:11) to worship Yahweh, the God of Moses, and the common sacrificial meal, according to 18:12, did not take place in the presence of Yahweh, but, accommodating it to the guest, in the presence of Elohim" (from the International Standard Bible Dictionary.)

It has been suggested that inasmuch as the Bible describes Jethro assisting Moses in the organization of a court system, at least some of ancient Israelite jurisprudence may have derived from Kenite sources. Still other scholars have speculated that the genealogy of Cain in the Book of Genesis may contain oral Kenite traditions.

Resources

  • Stade, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, i. 126 et seq., Berlin, 1889;
  • Moore, "Judges", in International Critical Commentary, pp. 51-55, New York, 1895;
  • Budde, Religion of Israel to the Exile, pp. 17-38, New York;
  • Barton, Semitic Origins, pp. 271-278, ib. 1902.

External links