Science fiction is a genre of fiction. It differs from fantasy in that, within the context of the narrative, its imaginary elements are largely possible within scientifically-established or scientifically-postulated laws of nature (though some elements in a story might still be pure imaginative speculation). Exploring the consequences of such differences is the traditional purpose of science fiction, making it a "literature of ideas". Science fiction is largely based on writing entertainingly and rationally about alternate possibilities in settings that are contrary to known reality.
These may include:
- A setting in the future, in alternative timelines, or in a historical past that contradicts known facts of history or the archeological record
- A setting in outer space, on other worlds, or involving aliens
- Stories that involve technology or scientific principles that contradict known laws of nature (compare Miracles)
- Stories that involve discovery or application of new scientific principles, such as time travel or psionics, or new technology, such as nanotechnology, faster-than-light travel or robots, or of new and different political or social systems (e.g., a dystopia, or a situation where organized society has collapsed)
==Definitions==. Science fiction is difficult to define, as it includes a wide range of subgenres and themes. Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty by stating that "science fiction is what we point to when we say it", a definition echoed by author Mark C. Glassy, who argues that the definition of science fiction is like the definition of pornography: you don't know what it is, but you know it when you see it. Vladimir Nabokov argued that if we were rigorous with our definitions, Shakespeare's play The Tempest would have to be termed science fiction.
According to science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein, "a handy short definition of almost all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world, past and present, and on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method." Rod Serling's definition is "fantasy is the impossible made probable. Science Fiction is the improbable made possible." Lester Del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado– or fan- has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is", and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no easily delineated limits to science fiction."
Forrest J. Ackerman used the term "sci-fi" at UCLA in 1954. As science fiction entered popular culture, writers and fans active in the field came to associate the term with low-budget, low-tech "B-movies" and with low-quality pulp science fiction. By the 1970s, critics within the field such as Terry Carr and Damon Knight were using "sci-fi" to distinguish hack-work from serious science fiction, and around 1978, Susan Wood and others introduced the pronunciation "skiffy". Peter Nicholls writes that "SF" (or "sf") is "the preferred abbreviation within the community of sf writers and readers". David Langford's monthly fanzine Ansible includes a regular section "As Others See Us" which offers numerous examples of "sci-fi" being used in a pejorative sense by people outside the genre.
As a means of understanding the world through speculation and storytelling, science fiction has antecedents back to mythology, though precursors to science fiction as literature can be seen in Lucian's True History in the 2nd century, some of the Arabian Nights tales, The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter in the 10th century, Ibn al-Nafis' Theologus Autodidactus in the 13th century, and Cyrano de Bergerac' Voyage de la Terre à la Lune and Des états de la Lune et du Soleil in the 17th century. Following the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels was one of the first true science fiction works, together with Voltaire's Micromégas and Kepler's Somnium. This latter work is considered by Carl Sagan and Isaac Asimov to be the first science fiction story. It depicts a journey to the Moon and how the Earth's motion is seen from there.
Following the 18th century development of the novel as a literary form, in the early 19th century, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science fiction novel; later Edgar Allan Poe wrote a story about a flight to the moon. More examples appeared throughout the 19th century.
Then with the dawn of new technologies such as electricity, the telegraph, and new forms of powered transportation, writers like Jules Verne and H. G. Wells created a body of work that became popular across broad cross-sections of society Wells The War of the Worlds describing an invasion of late Victorian England by Martians using tripod fighting machines, equipped with advanced weaponry. It is a seminal depiction of an alien invasion of Earth.
In the late 19th century, the term "scientific romance" was used in Britain to describe much of this fiction. This produced additional offshoots, such as the 1884 novella Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions by Edwin Abbott Abbott. The term would continue to be used into the early 20th century for writers such as Olaf Stapledon.
In the early 20th century, pulp magazines helped develop a new generation of mainly American SF writers, influenced by Hugo Gernsback, the founder of Amazing Stories magazine. In the late 1930s, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, and a critical mass of new writers emerged in New York City in a group called the Futurians, including Isaac Asimov, Damon Knight, Donald A. Wollheim, Frederik Pohl, James Blish, Judith Merril, and others. Other important writers during this period included Robert A. Heinlein, Arthur C. Clarke, A. E. van Vogt and Stanisław Lem. Campbell's tenure at Astounding is considered to be the beginning of the Golden Age of science fiction, characterized by hard SF stories celebrating scientific achievement and progress. This lasted until postwar technological advances, new magazines like Galaxy under Pohl as editor, and a new generation of writers began writing stories outside the Campbell mode.
In the 1950s, the Beat generation included speculative writers like William S. Burroughs. In the 1960s and early 1970s, writers like Frank Herbert, Samuel R. Delany, Roger Zelazny, and Harlan Ellison explored new trends, ideas, and writing styles, while a group of writers, mainly in Britain, became known as the New Wave. In the 1970s, writers like Larry Niven and Poul Anderson began to redefine hard SF. Ursula K. Le Guin and others pioneered soft science fiction.
In the 1980s, cyberpunk authors like William Gibson turned away from the traditional optimism and support for progress of traditional science fiction. Star Wars helped spark a new interest in space opera, focusing more on story and character than on scientific accuracy. C. J. Cherryh's detailed explorations of alien life and complex scientific challenges influenced a generation of writers. Emerging themes in the 1990s included environmental issues, the implications of the global Internet and the expanding information universe, questions about biotechnology and nanotechnology, as well as a post-Cold War interest in post-scarcity societies; Neal Stephenson's The Diamond Age comprehensively explores these themes. Lois McMaster Bujold's Vorkosigan novels brought the character-driven story back into prominence. The television series Star Trek: The Next Generation began a torrent of new SF shows, of which Babylon 5 was among the most highly acclaimed in the decade. Concern about the rapid pace of technological change crystallized around the concept of the technological singularity, popularized by Vernor Vinge's novel Marooned in Realtime and then taken up by other authors.
The study of science fiction, or science fiction studies, is the critical assessment, interpretation, and discussion of science fiction literature, film, new media, fandom, and fan fiction. Science fiction scholars take science fiction as an object of study in order to better understand it and its relationship to science, technology, politics, and culture-at-large. Science fiction studies has a long history dating back to the turn of the twentieth century, but it was not until later that science fiction studies solidified as a discipline with the publication of the academic journals Extrapolation (1959), Foundation - The International Review of Science Fiction (1972), and Science Fiction Studies (1973), and the establishment of the oldest organizations devoted to the study of science fiction, the Science Fiction Research Association and the Science Fiction Foundation, in 1970. The field has grown considerably since the 1970s with the establishment of more journals, organizations, and conferences with ties to the science fiction scholarship community, and science fiction degree-granting programs such as those offered by the University of Liverpool and Kansas University.
The National Science Foundation has conducted surveys of "Public Attitudes and Public Understanding" of "Science Fiction and Pseudoscience". They write that "Interest in science fiction may affect the way people think about or relate to science....one study found a strong relationship between preference for science fiction novels and support for the space program...The same study also found that students who read science fiction are much more likely than other students to believe that contacting extraterrestrial civilizations is both possible and desirable (Bainbridge 1982).
- Marg Gilks, Paula Fleming, and Moira Allen (2003). "Science Fiction: The Literature of Ideas". WritingWorld.com.
- Del Rey, Lester (1979). The World of Science Fiction: 1926–1976. Ballantine Books. p. 5. ISBN 0-345-25452-x.
- Sterling, Bruce. "Science fiction" in Encyclopædia Britannica 2008 
- Card, Scott (1990). How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy. Writer's Digest Books. p. 17. ISBN 0-89879-416-1.
- Hartwell, David G. (1996). Age of Wonders: Exploring the World of Science Fiction. Tor Books. pp. 109–131. ISBN 0-312-86235-0.
- Knight, Damon Francis (1967). In Search of Wonder: Essays on Modern Science Fiction. Advent Publishing, Inc.. pp. pg xiii. ISBN 0911682317.
- Glassy, Mark C. (2001). The Biology of Science Fiction Cinema. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0998-3.
- Nabokov, Vladimir Vladimirovich (1973). Strong opinions. McGraw-Hill. pp. pg. 3 et seq. ISBN 0070457379.
- Heinlein, Robert A.; Cyril Kornbluth, Alfred Bester, and Robert Bloch (1959). "Science Fiction: Its Nature, Faults and Virtues". The Science Fiction Novel: Imagination and Social Criticism. University of Chicago: Advent Publishers.
- Rod Serling.. The Twilight Zone, "The Fugitive".
- Del Rey, Lester (1980). The World of Science Fiction 1926–1976. Garland Publishing.
- The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2000.
- Whittier, Terry (1987). Neo-Fan's Guidebook.
- Scalzi, John (2005). The Rough Guide to Sci-Fi Movies.
- Ellison, Harlan (1998). ""Harlan Ellison's responses to online fan questions at ParCon"". Retrieved on 2006-04-25 2006.
- John Clute and Peter Nicholls, ed. (1993). ""Sci fi" (article by Peter Nicholls)". Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Orbit/Time Warner Book Group UK.
- John Clute and Peter Nicholls, ed. (1993). ""SF" (article by Peter Nicholls)". Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Orbit/Time Warner Book Group UK.
- "Ansible". David Langford.
- Grewell, Greg: "Colonizing the Universe: Science Fictions Then, Now, and in the (Imagined) Future", Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature, Vol. 55, No. 2 (2001), pp. 25–47 (30f.)
- Fredericks, S.C.: "Lucian's True History as SF", Science Fiction Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1 (March 1976), pp. 49–60
- Swanson, Roy Arthur: "The True, the False, and the Truly False: Lucian's Philosophical Science Fiction", Science Fiction Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Nov. 1976), pp. 227–239
- Georgiadou, Aristoula & Larmour, David H.J.: "Lucian's Science Fiction Novel True Histories. Interpretation and Commentary", Mnemosyne Supplement 179, Leiden 1998, ISBN 9004106677, Introduction
- Gunn, James E.: "The New Encyclopedia of Science Fiction", Publisher: Viking 1988, ISBN 9780670810413, p.249 calls it "Proto-Science Fiction"
- Irwin, Robert (2003), The Arabian Nights: A Companion, Tauris Parke Paperbacks, pp. 209–13, ISBN 1860649831
- Richardson, Matthew (2001), The Halstead Treasury of Ancient Science Fiction, Rushcutters Bay, New South Wales: Halstead Press, ISBN 1875684646 (cf. "Once Upon a Time", Emerald City (85), September 2002, retrieved on 2008-09-17)
- Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi (1982), "Ibn al-Nafis as a philosopher", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf. Ibnul-Nafees As a Philosopher, Encyclopedia of Islamic World )
- "Science Fiction". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- John Clute and Peter Nicholls (1993). "Mary W. Shelley". Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Orbit/Time Warner Book Group UK. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- Poe, Edgar Allan. The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, Volume 1, "The Unparalleled Adventures of One Hans Pfaal". Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- "Science Fiction". Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft. 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- Agatha Taormina (2005-01-19). "A History of Science Fiction". Northern Virginia Community College. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- Resnick, Mike (1997). "The Literature of Fandom". Mimosa (#21). Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- "SF TIMELINE 1960–1970". Magic Dragon Multimedia. 2003-12-24. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- Browning, Tonya (1993). A brief historical survey of women writers of science fiction. University of Texas in Austin. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
- Philip Hayward (1993). Future Visions: New Technologies of the Screen. British Film Institute. pp. 180–204. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- Allen Varney (2004-01-04). "Exploding Worlds!". Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- Vera Nazarian (2005-05-21). "Intriguing Links to Fabulous People and Places...". Retrieved on 2007-01-30.
- "Shards of Honor". NESFA Press. 2004-05-10. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- David Richardson (1997-07). "Dead Man Walking". Cult Times. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- Nazarro, Joe. "The Dream Given Form". TV Zone Special (#30).
- Sheila Schwartz (1971). "Science Fiction: Bridge between the Two Cultures". The English Journal. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
- "An Interview with Hal Duncan". Del Rey Online. 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- "Arthur C. Clarke, 1917-". Pegasos. 2000. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- Chester, Tony (2002-03-17). "A Fall of Moondust". Concatenation. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- Fraknoi, Andrew (2003-02-11). "Teaching Astronomy with Science Fiction: A Resource Guide". Astronomy Education Review (National Optical Astronomy Observatory). Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- Scientist science fiction authors
- Hartwell, David G. (1996-08). Age of Wonders. Tor Books. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- Maas, Wendy (2004-07). Ray Bradbury: Master of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Enslow Publishers.
- Encyclopedia Britannica. Science fiction
- Yvonne Howell. Apocalyptic Realism: The Science Fiction of Arkady and Boris Strugatsky. Peter Lang Publishing (March 1995) ISBN 0820419621
- Stableford, Brian (2006). Science Fact and Science Fiction: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis Group LLC. p. 113.
- It was later refined by William Gibson's book, Neuromancer which is credited for envisioning cyberspace. Published in the November 1983 issue of Amazing Science Fiction Stories; Bethke, Bruce. "Cyberpunk". Infinity Plus. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- James O'Ehley (1997-07). "SCI-FI MOVIE PAGE PICK: BLADE RUNNER - THE DIRECTOR'S CUT". Sci-Fi Movie Page. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- "Time Travel and Modern Physics". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2000-02-17. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- Adam-Troy Castro (2006). "Off the Shelf: In the Presence of Mine Enemies". Book review. Sci Fi Weekly. Retrieved on 26 November 2008.
- Hall, Melissa Mia (April 7, 2008). "Master of Alternate History". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved on 26 November 2008.
- Henry Jenkins (1999=07-23). "Joe Haldeman, 1943-". Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- "Website Interview with Toni Weisskopf on SF Canada". Baen Books. 2005-09-12. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- Elyce Rae Helford, in Westfahl, Gary. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Greenwood Press, 2005: 289-290
- "Science Fiction Citations". Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
- "Aeon Magazine Writer's Guidelines". 2006-04-26. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- "Anne McCaffrey". tor.com. 1999-08-16. Retrieved on 2007-01-24.
- "Information About SFWA". Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, Inc.. Retrieved on 2006-01-16.
- Peggy Rae Sapienza and Judy Kindell (2006-03-23). "Student Science Fiction and Fantasy Contest". L.A.con IV. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- Steven H Silver (2000-09-39). "Program notes". Chicon 2000. Retrieved on 2001-01-16.
- Carol Berg. "Links, "Conventions and Writers' Workshops"". Retrieved on 2001-01-16.
- "The Hugo Awards By Category". World Science Fiction Society. 2006-07-26. Retrieved on 2006-01-16.
- Robert B. Marks (1997-05). "On Incorporating Mythology into Fantasy, or How to Write Mythical Fantasy in 752 Easy Steps". Story and Myth. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- Elkins, Charles (1980-11). "Recent Bibliographies of Science Fiction and Fantasy". Science Fiction Studies. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- David Carroll and Kyla Ward (1993-05). "The Horror Timeline, "Part I: Pre-20th Century"". Burnt Toast (#13). Retrieved on 2001-01-16.
- Chad Austin. "Horror Films Still Scaring – and Delighting – Audiences". North Carolina State University News. Retrieved on 2006-01-16.
- "Utopian ideas hidden inside Dystopian sf". False Positives. 2006-11. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- Glenn, Joshua (2000-12-22). "Philip K. Dick (1928–1982)". Hermenaut (#13). Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
- McBride, Jim (1997-11). "Spotlight On... Robert J. Sawyer". Fingerprints (Crime Writes of Canada) (November 1997). Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
- von Thorn, Alexander (2002-08). Aurora Award acceptance speech. Calgary, Alberta.
- Wertham, Fredric (1973). The World of Fanzines. Carbondale & Evanston: Southern Illinois University Press.
- "Fancyclopedia I: C - Cosmic Circle". fanac.org. 1999-08-12. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- Lawrence Watt-Evans (1000-03-15). "What Are Science Fiction Conventions Like?". Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- Mike Glyer (1998-11). "Is Your Club Dead Yet?" ([dead link] – Scholar search). File 770. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- Robert Runte (2003). "History of sf Fandom". Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- "Origins of the Middle Kingdom". Folump Enterprises. 1994. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- Ken St. Andre (2006-02-03). "History". Central Arizona Science Fiction Society. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- Patten, Fred (2006). Furry! The World's Best Anthropomorphic Fiction. ibooks.
- Rob Hansen (2003-08-13). "British Fanzine Bibliography". Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- "Hugo Awards by Category". World Science Fiction Society. 2006-07-26. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- Keith Lynch (1994-07-14). "History of the Net is Important". Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2003. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
- National Science Foundation survey: Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding. Science Fiction and Pseudoscience.
- Bainbridge, W.S. 1982. "The Impact of Science Fiction on Attitudes Toward Technology." In E.M. Emme, ed. Science Fiction and Space Futures: Past and Present. San Diego, CA: Univelt.
- Perry-Rhodan-USA.com (September 8 1996). "Perry Rhodan 35th anniversary". Press release. Retrieved on 2009-01-26.
- David G. Hartwell, Damien Broderick (ed.), Centaurus: The best of Australian science fiction, Damien Broderick, Introduction, .10.21 Tor Books, 1999m ISBN 0312865562
- David G. Hartwell, Damien Broderick (ed.), Centaurus: The best of Australian science fiction, David. G. Hartwell, The other editor's introduction, ibid., p.22-25 Tor Books, 1999m ISBN 0312865562
- Barron, Neil, ed. Anatomy of Wonder: A Critical Guide to Science Fiction (5th ed.). (Libraries Unlimited, 2004) ISBN 1-59158-171-0.
- Clute, John Science Fiction: The Illustrated Encyclopedia. London: Dorling Kindersley, 1995. ISBN 0-7513-0202-3.
- Clute, John and Peter Nicholls, eds., The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. St Albans, Herts, UK: Granada Publishing, 1979. ISBN 0-586-05380-8.
- Clute, John and Peter Nicholls, eds., The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St Martin's Press, 1995. ISBN 0-312-13486-X.
- Disch, Thomas M. The Dreams Our Stuff Is Made Of. Touchstone, 1998. ISBN 9780684824055
- Reginald, Robert. Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature, 1975–1991. Detroit, MI/Washington, DC/London: Gale Research, 1992. ISBN 0-8103-1825-3.
- Weldes, Jutta, ed. To Seek Out New Worlds: Exploring Links between Science Fiction and World Politics. Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 0-312-29557-X.
- Westfahl, Gary, ed. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders (three volumes). Greenwood Press, 2005.
- Wolfe, Gary K. Critical Terms for Science Fiction and Fantasy: A Glossary and Guide to Scholarship. Greenwood Press, 1986. ISBN 0-313-22981-3.