Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics to non-human creatures and beings, phenomena, material states and objects or abstract concepts. Examples include animals and plants and forces of nature such as winds, rain or the sun depicted as creatures with human motivation able to reason and converse. The term derives from the combination of the Greek ἄνθρωπος (ánthrōpos), "human" and μορφή (morphē), "shape" or "form".
It is strongly associated with art and storytelling where it has ancient roots. Most cultures possess a long-standing fable tradition with anthropomorphised animals as characters that can stand as commonly recognised types of human behavior.
Anthropomorphic animals are often used as mascots for sports teams or sporting events, often represented by humans in costumes.
In religion and mythology
In religion and mythology, anthropomorphism refers to the perception of a divine being or beings in human form, or the recognition of human qualities in these beings. Many mythologies are concerned with anthropomorphic deities who express human characteristics such as jealousy, hatred, or love. The Greek gods, such as Zeus and Apollo, were often depicted in human form exhibiting human traits. Anthropomorphism in this case is referred to as anthropotheism.
Numerous sects throughout history have been called anthropomorphites attributing such things as hands and eyes to God, including a sect in Egypt in the 4th century, and an heretical, 10th-century sect, who literally interpreted Book of Genesis chapter 1, verse 27: "So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them."
The Greek philosopher Xenophanes (570–480 BC) said that "the greatest god" resembles man "neither in form nor in mind." Anthropomorphism of God is rejected by Judaism and Islam, which both believe that God is beyond human limits of physical comprehension. Judaism's rejection grew after the advent of Christianity until becoming codified in 13 principles of Jewish faith authored by Maimonides in the 12th Century.
In his book Faces in the Clouds: A New Theory of Religion, Stewart Elliott Guthrie theorizes that all religions are anthropomorphisms that originate due to the brain's tendency to detect the presence or vestiges of other humans in natural phenomena.
In literature and arts
Anthropomorphism is a well established literary device from early times. Aesop's Fables, a collection of short tales written by the ancient Greek citizen Aesop, make extensive use of anthropomorphism, in which animals and weather are used to illustrate simple moral lessons. The books Panchatantra (The Five Principles) and The Jataka Tales employ anthropomorphised animals to illustrate various principles of life.
- "anthropotheism". Ologies & -Isms. The Gale Group, Inc.. 2008. https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Anthropotheism. Retrieved 23 August 2009.
- This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. Anthropomorphite.
- Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies V xiv 109.1–3
- Guthrie, Stewart (1995). Faces in the Clouds: A New Theory of Religion. Oxford University Press. p. 7. ISBN 0195098919. https://books.google.com/books?id=dZNAQh6TuwIC&dq=Faces+in+the+Clouds:+A+New+Theory+of+Religion&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=zkIxSvGuJ6GqtgeLlYzrBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4#PPA7,M1.