Out of Body Experience
An out-of-body experience (OBE or sometimes OOBE), is an experience that typically involves a sensation of floating outside of one's body and, in some cases, perceiving one's physical body from a place outside one's body (autoscopy). The term out-of-the-body experience was introduced in 1943 by G.N.M Tyrrell in his book Apparitions, and adopted by, for example, Celia Green and Robert Monroe as a bias-free alternative to belief-centric labels such as "astral projection" or "spirit walking". Though the term usefully distances researchers from scientifically problematic concepts such as the soul, scientists still know little about the phenomenon.
One in ten people has an out-of-body experience at some time in their lives. OBEs are often part of the near-death experience, and reportedly may also lead to astral projection. Those who have experienced OBEs sometimes claim to have observed details which were unknown to them beforehand.
In some cases the phenomenon appears to occur spontaneously; in others it is associated with a physical or mental trauma, use of psychedelic drugs, dissociative drugs, or a dream-like state. Many techniques aiming to induce the experience deliberately have been developed, for example visualization while in a relaxed, meditative state. Recent (2007) studies have shown that experiences somewhat similar to OBEs can be induced by direct brain stimulation. Some of those who experience OBEs claimed to have willed themselves out of their bodies, while others report having found themselves being pulled from their bodies (usually preceded by a feeling of paralysis). In other accounts, the feeling of being outside the body was suddenly realized after the fact, and the experiencers saw their own bodies almost by accident. OBEs often occur during the borderline stage between REM sleep and arousal when sleep paralysis may persist and dream imagery may mingle with sensory input.
Some neurologists have suspected that the event is triggered by a mismatch between visual and tactile signals. They used a virtual reality setup to recreate an OBE. The subject looked through goggles and saw his own body as it would appear to an outside observer standing behind him. The experimenter then touched the subject at the same time as a rod appeared to touch the virtual image. The experiment created an illusion of being behind and outside one's body. However, critics point out that it is uncertain how this relates to the OBE phenomenon.
- G.N.M. Tyrrell, Apparitions, Gerald Duckworth and Co. Ltd, London, 1943, pp. 149.
- C.E. Green, Out-of-the-body Experiences, Hamish Hamilton, London, 1968.
- Journeys Out of the Body, 1971, Robert Monroe, ISBN 0-385-00861-9
- BBC NEWS | UK | Magazine | Out-of-body or all in the mind?
- https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/08/070823141057.htm ScienceDaily (Aug. 24, 2007)First Out-of-body Experience Induced In Laboratory Setting
- https://www.near-death.com/experiences/evidence01.html People Have NDEs While Brain Dead Retrieved Sept 21, 2007
- Bruce, Robert (1999) Astral Dynamics: A NEW Approach to Out-of-Body Experiences ISBN 1-57174-143-7, Chapters 15–22
- BBC NEWS | Health | Out-of-body experience recreated
- Buhlman, William. "Adventures Beyond the Body: Astral Projection". ISBN 0062513710
Review of the tome "Projectiology: A Panorama of Experiences Outside the Human Body" by *Waldo Vieira, MD Journal of Parapsychology
- Tart, Charles (1997). "Six Studies of Out-of-the-Body Experiences" Journal of Near Death Studies
- Monroe, Robert. (1971). Doubleday Journeys Out of the Body. reprinted (1989) Souvenir Press Ltd. ISBN 978-0285627536
- Monroe, Robert. (1985). Far Journeys. Doubleday. reprinted (1992) Main Street Books. ISBN 978-0385231824
- Monroe, Robert. (1994). Ultimate Journey. Doubleday. reprinted (1996) Main Street Books. ISBN 978-0385472081
- Leland, Kurt. (2001). Otherwhere: A Field Guide to Nonphysical Reality for the Out-of-Body Traveler. Hampton Roads Publishing. ISBN 978-1571742414
- Leland, Kurt. (2002). The Unanswered Question: Death, Near-Death, and the Afterlife. Hampton Roads Publishing. ISBN 978-1571742995
- OBE in the science mainstream news
- A blog record of a series of OBE's by a meditator
- Website of OBE author William Buhlman
- Out-of-body and Near-death experiences Articles, videos and discussions on out-of-body and near-death experiences.
- An in-depth psychological and philosophical analysis of OBEs and self-perception
- "Out-of-Body Experience (OBE)" – from the Skeptic's Dictionary
- "How To Use Waking Sleep Paralysis To Induce OBEs" at Youtube