Astrology (from Greek αστρολογία : ἄστρον, astron, "constellation, star"; and -λογία, -logia, "the study of") is a group of systems, traditions, and beliefs which hold that the relative positions of celestial bodies and related details can provide information about personality, human affairs, and other terrestrial matters. A practitioner of astrology is called an astrologer. The scientific community considers astrology a pseudoscience or superstition.
Numerous traditions and applications employing astrological concepts have arisen since its earliest recorded beginnings in the 3rd millennium BC. Astrology has played an important role in the shaping of culture, early astronomy, the Vedas, and various disciplines throughout history. In fact, astrology and astronomy were often indistinguishable before the modern era, with the desire for predictive and divinatory knowledge one of the motivating factors for astronomical observation. Astronomy began to diverge from astrology after a period of gradual separation from the Renaissance up until the 18th century. Eventually, astronomy distinguished itself as the scientific study of astronomical objects and phenomena without regard to the astrological understandings of these phenomena.
Astrologers believe that the movements and positions of celestial bodies either directly influence life on Earth or correspond to events experienced on a human scale. Modern astrologers define astrology as a symbolic language, an art form, or a form of divination. Despite differences in definitions, a common assumption of astrology is that celestial placements can aid in the interpretation of past and present events and in the prediction of the future.
Magic was the branch off the evolutionary religious tree which eventually bore the fruit of a scientific age. Belief in astrology led to the development of astronomy; belief in a philosopher's stone led to the mastery of metals, while belief in magic numbers founded the science of mathematics.
- "Activities With Astrology". Astronomical society of the Pacific.
- "Objections to Astrology and the Strange Case of Astrology".
- Robert Hand. "The History of Astrology — Another View". Retrieved 2007-06-19.
- Eysenck, H.J., Nias, D.K.B., Astrology: Science or Superstition? (Penguin Books, 1982)
- "The case for and against astrology: end of a shouting match." Retrieved 2009-9-12.
- Jennifer Viegas. "Scientists dump cold water on astrology." Retrieved 2009-9-12.
- David Frawley. "The Vedic Literature of Ancient India and Its Many Secrets". Retrieved April 13, 2009.
- David Pingree. "The Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Astrology". Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- Reinhold Ebertin (1994). Combination of Stellar Influences. Tempe, Ariz.: American Federation of Astrologers. ISBN 978-0866900874.
- Michael Star. "Astrology FAQ, Basics for Beginners and Students of Astrology". Retrieved 2006-07-17.
- Alan Oken. Alan Oken’s As Above So Below. ISBN 978-0553027761.
- "Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Meriam-Webster. Retrieved 2006-07-19.
- ""astrology" Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2006-07-17.
- Roger Beck, A Brief History of Ancient Astrology, Blackwell (2007)
- Paramahansa Yogananda: Autobiography of a Yogi/Chapter 16: Outwitting the Stars
- Astrology/ at the Open Directory Project
- Astrology and religion
- Astrology in Islam
- Astrology in the Old and New Testament, by Joseph John Dewey.
- Astrology: Between Religion and the Empirical, a treatise on astrology by Dr. Gustav-Adolf Schoener, translated by Shane Denson.
- Medieval Astrology, a learning resource from the British Library.
- Astrology in Judaism
- Astrology and science
- Astrology and Science, a critical look at astrology and science.
- The Astrotest, an account of a test of the predictive power of astrology, with references to other experiments.
- The Real Romance in the Stars, a critical view of astrology by Richard Dawkins.
- Astrofaces, a research project seeking to provide statistical correlations of astrology for modern science with photographs grouped by the sun, moon and ascendant signs of the subjects.